Marketing includes all strategies to improve trade / to improve a company’s turnover.
1- advertising (TV, radio adverts, cinema adverts, on line adverts or banners, brochures, catalogues, billboards and posters, using airplanes, during sports events or concerts, magazine and newspaper adverts, video adverts on YouTube, mobile phone adverts)
2- promoting products with samples / or promoting a product by giving a gift (for instance you book a holiday now and you get 5% discount on your next booking)
3- sponsoring sports events / music events etc.
4- using testimonials (for instance giving free products to celebrities to wear, or inviting journalists and celebrities to go on holiday in a certain place).
5- movies and books (to promote a tourist destination) – there is a very famous book and movie called “Under the Tuscan Sun”, Dan Brown’s books have promoted lots of tourism destinations (Inferno promotes Florence and other destinations in Italy, the Da Vinci Code promoted Paris, etc.)
7- a very powerful marketing tool is “word of mouth” (negative word of mouth is more powerful than positive word of mouth); nowadays word of mouth is becoming more and more important because there are websites such as Tripadvisor or Duespaghi where people write reviews.